Compiling Dash Core¶
While Dash offers stable binary builds on the website and on GitHub, and development builds using GitLab CI, many users will also be interested in building Dash binaries for themselves. This process has been greatly simplified with the release of Dash Core 0.13.0, and users who do not required deterministic builds can typically follow the generic build notes available on GitHub to compile or cross-compile Dash for any platform.
The instructions to build Dash Core 0.12.3 or older are available here on a previous version of this page.
Gitian is the deterministic build process that is used to build the Dash Core executables. It provides a way to be reasonably sure that the executables are really built from the source on GitHub. It also makes sure that the same, tested dependencies are used and statically built into the executable. Multiple developers build the source code by following a specific descriptor (“recipe”), cryptographically sign the result, and upload the resulting signature. These results are compared and only if they match, the build is accepted and uploaded to dash.org.
This setup has been tested using a clean install of Ubuntu 20.04. For maximum compatibility, please use that version.
Start by logging in as the “root” user. Create a new user with the following
<username> with a username of your choice:
You will be prompted for a password. Enter and confirm using a new password (different to your root password) and store it in a safe place. You will also see prompts for user information, but this can be left blank. Alternatively, an existing user can be used on systems that are already in use (e.g. your existing development system).
docker group on the system. This group will be used by Docker
processes and also will enable non-root users to run the Docker commands used by
the build process:
Add the user to the sudo and docker groups so they can perform commands as root and run docker commands:
usermod -aG sudo,docker <username>
While still logged in as root, update the system from the Ubuntu package repository:
apt update apt upgrade -y
apt install -y apt-cacher-ng
No when asked
Allow HTTP tunnels through Apt-Cacher NG? during
Note: you may also need to open port 3142 if you have a firewall enabled on
your system (e.g.
ufw allow 3142/tcp).
After installing these updates, reboot the system, login as
clone required repositories:
git clone https://github.com/dashpay/dash git clone https://github.com/devrandom/gitian-builder git clone https://github.com/dashpay/dash-detached-sigs git clone https://github.com/dashpay/gitian.sigs
Download the Mac OSX SDK:
mkdir gitian-builder/inputs wget -q -O gitian-builder/inputs/MacOSX10.11.sdk.tar.gz https://bitcoincore.org/depends-sources/sdks/MacOSX10.11.sdk.tar.gz
It is only necessary to run this step during the initial setup of your machine:
# <signer> = The name associated with your PGP key # <version> = Dash Core tag to build (exclude the leading "v") # Example: ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py --setup alice 0.17.0.3 ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py --setup <signer> <version>
signer parameter should be set to the value provided for “Real name”
when generating a key with GPG. See the GnuPrivacyGuard Howto
for details on how to generate a key if you don’t already have one.
Build Dash Core¶
Run gitian build to create binaries for Linux, Mac, and Windows:
# <signer> = The name associated with your PGP key # <version> = Dash Core tag to build (exclude the leading "v") # Example: Build binaries for all OSes, use all available cores and 16 GB RAM # ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -b -n -j $(nproc) -m 16000 alice 0.17.0.3 ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -b -n -j $(nproc) -m <MB of RAM to use> <signer> <version>
These instructions assume that a PGP key for <signer> exists on the build system. If the expected key is not found, the script will fail at the signing step with a message including:
gpg: skipped "<signer>": No secret key gpg: signing failed: No secret key
When the build completes, it will put the binaries in a
.assert files and their signatures will be placed in
Create signatures for signed binaries¶
Mac and Windows binaries are signed by Dash Core Group using the relevant
Apple/Microsoft processes. In this step, that information will be validated and
signed by your machine. The associated
.assert files and their signatures
will be placed in
gitian.sigs/<version>/<signer>/... along with the
signatures for unsigned binaries created in the previous step.
# <signer> = The name associated with your PGP key # <version> = Dash Core tag to build (exclude the leading "v") # Example: ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -s -n -j $(nproc) -m 16000 -o mw alice 0.17.0.3 ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -s -n -j $(nproc) -m <MB of RAM to use> -o mw <signer> <version>
The gitian.sigs repository contains deterministic build results signed by multiple Core developers for each release. Run the following command to verify that your build matches the official release:
# Example: ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -v alice 0.17.0.3 ./dash/contrib/gitian-build.py -v <signer> <version>
You should get a result similar to the following for Linux, Windows, MacOS,
Signed Windows, and Signed MacOS. Assuming the previous steps completed
successfully, you will also see your own signatures with an
OK status also.
Verifying v0.17.0.3 Linux gpg: Signature made Sun 06 Jun 2021 12:46:44 PM EDT gpg: using RSA key 29590362EC878A81FD3C202B52527BEDABE87984 gpg: Good signature from "Pasta <firstname.lastname@example.org>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: 2959 0362 EC87 8A81 FD3C 202B 5252 7BED ABE8 7984 pasta: OK gpg: Signature made Sun 06 Jun 2021 06:41:11 PM EDT gpg: using RSA key CF9A554A36B7950BB648A15DA0078C72B1777616 gpg: issuer "email@example.com" gpg: Good signature from "Dustinface <firstname.lastname@example.org>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: CF9A 554A 36B7 950B B648 A15D A007 8C72 B177 7616 dustinface: OK gpg: Signature made Sun 06 Jun 2021 07:39:14 PM EDT gpg: using RSA key 3F5D48C9F00293CD365A3A9883592BD1400D58D9 gpg: Good signature from "UdjinM6 <UdjinM6@dash.org>" [unknown] gpg: aka "UdjinM6 <UdjinM6@dashpay.io>" [unknown] gpg: aka "UdjinM6 <UdjinM6@gmail.com>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: 3F5D 48C9 F002 93CD 365A 3A98 8359 2BD1 400D 58D9 UdjinM6: OK
After successfully building the binaries, signing them, and verifying the signatures, you can optionally contribute them to the gitian.sigs repository via a pull request on GitHub.
Since the official gitian.sigs repository has restricted write access, create a fork of it via GitHub and add your fork as a remote repository:
git remote add me https://github.com/<your GitHub username>/gitian.sigs
The first time you contribute signatures, also put a copy of your public key in
gitian-keys folder of the repository so others can easily verify your
signature. Your public key can be exported to a file using the following
# <signer> = The name associated with your PGP key # Example: gpg --output alice.pgp --armor --export alice gpg --output <signer>.pgp --armor --export <signer>
Adding your signatures¶
Create a new branch for the version that was built:
# Example: git checkout -b 0.17.0.3-alice git checkout -b <version>-<signer>
Add and commit the
*.assert.sig files created by the build
process. They will be located in the following folders:
<version>-linux/<signer>/* <version>-osx-signed/<signer>/* <version>-osx-unsigned/<signer>/* <version>-win-signed/<signer>/* <version>-win-unsigned/<signer>/*
Push to your fork of the gitian.sigs repository on GitHub:
# "me" references the name of the remote repository added during initial setup git push me
Go to GitHub and open a pull
request to the
master branch of the upstream repository. The pull request
will be reviewed by Dash Core developers and merged if everything checks out.
Thanks for contributing!