Masternodes are paid by the network for the PrivateSend, InstantSend and governance services they provide. 45% of the block reward is paid out to the masternodes, 45% to miners and 10% to the budget. In practice, half of the reward from a normal block goes to the miner and half to the masternode. Then, every 16,616 blocks (approximately 30.29 days), a superblock is created that contains the entire 10% payout to the budget proposal winners. Masternodes are selected for payment in each block (approximately every 2.6 minutes) from a deterministic masternode list, and moved to the back of the list after payment. As more masternodes are created, the duration between payments increases. If the collateral behind a masternode is spent, or if a masternode stops providing services to the network for more than one hour, it is removed from the list until normal service resumes. In this way, masternodes are given incentive to provide efficient and reliable services to the network.
达世币拥有很多具有完整达世币区块链的服务器，并且这些服务器还能为达世币网络服务，这一点非常重要。得益于区块奖励机制，达世币不存在主节点数量不足的风险，并且研发人员还能以此为依托推行新的去中心化功能。这正是达世币的真正优势所在 - 达世币区块链以奖励机制确保主节点 24x7 为网络服务，同时达世币还能有效地实现扩容并以更高效的方式部署各项服务。更多的主节点就意味着更强大、更安全的达世币网络。
As of November 2018, the Dash network has over 5000 masternodes located in over 45 countries and hosted on over 140 ISPs. The block reward is approximately 3.34 Dash, so the selected masternode receives 1.67 Dash per payment or approximately 6 Dash per month. The block reward decreases by 7.14% approximately once per year, so the annual earnings for a masternode owner is approximately 7% of the collateral, and will decrease over time as calculated here. See this tool to calculate real-time payment rates, and this site for various real-time statistics on the masternode network.
DIP003 Masternode Changes¶
Dash 0.13.0 implements DIP003, which introduces several changes to how a Dash masternode is set up and operated. A list of available documentation appears below:
- DIP003 Deterministic Masternode Lists
- DIP003 Masternode Changes (you are here)
- Dash 0.13 Upgrade Procedure
- Full masternode setup guide
- Information for users of hosted masternodes
- Information for operators of hosted masternodes
Important concepts and changes:
- It is possible to upgrade an existing masternode in-place without starting a new server and without moving your 1000 DASH collateral.
- A masternode was previously “started” using the
masternode start-aliascommand based on a
masternode.conffile. Under DIP003, this file is no longer used, and masternodes are “registered” instead of “started”. Masternodes begin offering services when a ProRegTx special transaction containing a particular key is written to the blockchain.
- As before in
masternode.conf, the ProRegTx references the transaction id (txid) and index holding the collateral. The IP address and port of the masternode are also defined in this transaction.
- The ProRegTx contains 2 Dash addresses (also called public keys) and
one BLS public key, which represent 3 different roles in the
masternode and define update and voting rights. The keys are:
ownerKeyAddr: This is a Dash address (public key) controlled by the masternode owner. It is different from the address used for the collateral. Because the owner uses the private key associated with this address to issue ProUpRegTx transactions, it must be unique for each masternode.
operatorPubKey: This is the BLS public key of the masternode operator. Only the operator is allowed to issue ProUpServTx transactions. Because the operator key is used during live masternode operation to sign masternode-related P2P messages, quorum-related messages and governance trigger votes, the BLS key must be unique for each masternode.
votingKeyAddr: This is a Dash address (public key) used for proposal voting. Votes signed with this key are valid while the masternode is in the registered set.
- Masternode payments were previously sent to the address holding the collateral. Under DIP003, the owner should specify a different address to receive payments in the ProRegTx. The owner may optionally specify a non-zero percentage as payment to a separate masternode operator, if applicable.
- The masternode configuration can later be updated using ProUpServTx, ProUpRegTx and ProUpRevTx transactions. See Updating Masternode Information in DIP003 and Updating Masternode Information in this documentation for more details.
- All functions related to DIP003 will only take effect once Spork 15 is
enabled on the network. Until then, it is necessary to set up the
masternode following the old process
and then work through the upgrade procedure. In
this state, the masternode will continue to function in compatibility
mode, and all DIP003 related functions, such as payments to a separate
address or percentage payments to operators, will not yet have any
votingKeyAddrmust also be identical until Spork 15 is enabled.
The process of setting up or upgrading a masternode is as follows:
- Set up your server and operating system
- Install the Dash software and synchronize the blockchain
- Generate a BLS key pair and enter the private key on the masternode
- Prepare a ProRegTx transaction
- Sign the ProRegTx transaction
- Submit the signed ProRegTx transaction
Step 1 can be omitted if you have an existing server. Steps 2 and 3 require direct access to the masternode. Steps 3 and 4 require access to a Dash Wallet (or DMT). Step 5 requires access to the wallet actually holding the collateral. Step 6 requires a Dash balance to pay the transaction fee.
主节点 vs. 挖矿¶
Masternode paymentss in Dash version 0.13.0 are entirely deterministic and based on a simple list sort algorithm. For documentation of version 0.12.0 payment logic, see the legacy masternode payment documentation. Dash version 0.13.0 implements DIP003 and defines two sets of masternodes.
- The full set, which contains all registered masternodes that have not spent their collateral funding transactions.
- The valid set, a subset of the full set which contains all masternodes which are not marked as Proof of Service (PoSe) banned.
Each masternode in the set of valid masternodes is identified by the block at which it was last paid. If it has never received payment or was banned for failing to meet the PoSe requirements, then the block at which it was first registered or at which PoSe was restored is used instead. The list is sorted in ascending order, and the first entry is paid. If this results in more than one masternode, then the hash of the masternode ProRegTx is sorted to break the tie.
InstantSend transactions in Dash version 0.13.0 are secured using a consensus of deterministically selected masternodes. This set of masternodes is informally termed a quorum and must be in a majority agreement, at least six out of ten, for a successful lock of the transaction inputs. Multiple quorums are self-selected for each input in an InstantSend transaction using the mathematical distance between the hash of each input and of the set of masternode funding transactions.
- 运行Linux的服务器或虚拟专用服务器。最新版的指南使用的是Ubuntu 16.04 LTS。推荐用户使用Vultr、DigitalOcean或其它性能优越的虚拟专用服务器。通常情况下，只需达到平均规格的服务器就能满足需求了，但达世币的发展将对服务器的性能提出更高的要求。
|CPU||1x 1 GHz||1x 2 GHz|
|RAM||2 GB||4 GB|
|Disk||20 GB||40 GB|
|Network||400 GB/mth||1 TB/mth|
The exact hardware requirements for Dash Evolution masternodes have yet to be determined, although some pointers can be taken from the roadmap and this blog post. It should be possible to run Dash masternodes on normal VPS servers until the block size reaches approximately 20 MB, after which custom hardware such as GPUs and eventually ASICs may be required.