匿名发送和即时发送

匿名支付

This documentation describes how to use Dash Core to send Dash with enhanced privacy.

Background

PrivateSend, released as DarkSend in 0.9-RC4 of the DarkCoin client and rebranded to PrivateSend in May 2016, is a trustless method of running a sequence of transactions (known as “mixing”) such that an external observer is unable to determine the source of funding when a PrivateSend transaction is created. This gives your Dash the same privacy properties as cash withdrawn from an ATM, for example. The mixing and denomination process is seamless, automatic, and requires no intervention on the part of the user. The current implementation of PrivateSend in the Dash Core wallet allows any amount of Dash to be mixed for later use in PrivateSend transactions. PrivateSend is also available in the Dash Electrum wallet.

Knowledge of the exact number of rounds of PrivateSend mixing used in any given PrivateSend transaction has a quantifiable effect on the confidence an adversary may have when attempting to guess the source of a PrivateSend transaction. For this reason, the recommended (and default) number of rounds of PrivateSend mixing is set to four, and some inputs may be mixed by additional rounds to further improve privacy.

如需了解有关匿名发送功能的更多理论知识和流程,请点击此处

配置

  1. Open your Dash Core wallet, go to Settings and select Options. Go to the PrivateSend tab.

    ../../_images/options-privatesend.png
  2. Next to PrivateSend rounds to use, enter a value between 1-16. Each round of PrivateSend performs one denominated fund mixing transaction. Higher numbers of rounds increase your overall level of privacy while decreasing the chance of detection via node collusion. 16 is the highest number of rounds currently available.

    NOTE: To prevent system abuse, an average of one in ten rounds of masternode mixing incurs a fee of .0001 DASH.

  3. Enter a Target PrivateSend balance. This value provides a lower boundary on the final amount of funds to be mixed. Depending on how the client splits your wallet balance, you may end up with denominated inputs whose sum total is slightly greater than the target amount.

  4. 点击 OK 来保存设置。

  5. 当用户启动钱包后,匿名发送功能是默认禁用的。只有用户在选项中设定混币轮数、数量并点击钱包概览中的开始混币后,这项功能才会被激活。

开始混币

在用户点击Dash Core钱包的概览中的开始混币后,匿名发送功能就会启用。一旦满足以下条件,用户就可以进行混币了:

  • The wallet contains sufficient non-mixed funds to create the minimum required denominated values
  • 用户没有在选项中禁用匿名发送功能
  • The target value for mixed Funds in the Options dialog is greater than zero

如果用户的钱包已经加密(强烈推荐进行加密),那么钱包将要求用户输入钱包密码。启用仅用于通过匿名发送功能进行混币复选框,以便解锁钱包的混币功能。

../../_images/mixing-password.png

输入匿名发送功能混币环节所需的密码

这一步骤不仅会解锁钱包,而且还意味着匿名发送功能的混币流程已经开始了。在该流程完成之前,钱包将会维持已解锁的状态。混币完成后,钱包将自动结束解锁状态。

../../_images/mixing.png

匿名发送功能的界面将在点击开始混币后出现。请注意,此时的状态显示为启用

匿名发送功能将开始创建交易,用户的匿名发送金额将会逐渐增加。这个过程可能需要花费一些时间,所以用户需要一些耐心。在此期间,用户可以对整个流程进行监控,具体细节如下所述。

Any of the following actions will interrupt the mixing process. Because the transactions are atomic (they either take place completely, or do not take place at all), it is possible to safely interrupt PrivateSend mixing at any time.

  • 点击概览中的停止混币按键
  • 在匿名发送功能的混币流程完成之前关闭客户端
  • 在混币流程完成之前用钱包进行匿名发送
  • 在混币结束后禁用匿名发送

对混币的监控

If you want to monitor PrivateSend in more detail, you need to enable some advanced features of the wallet. Go to Settings, select Options and go to the Wallet tab. Check the Enable advanced PrivateSend interface checkbox. This will allow you to monitor progress and see which individual operations PrivateSend is carrying out in the background.

../../_images/mixing-progress.png

监控匿名发送的进程

Since PrivateSend mixing creates a lot of new address keys to send and receive the mixed denominations, you may receive a warning when the number of remaining keys runs low. This is nothing to be worried about, since the wallet will simply create more keys as necessary. However, these keys will not exist in any previous backups of your wallet. For this reason, it is important to backup your wallet again after mixing is complete.

用户也可以通过在交易选项中浏览混币流程创建的交易来监控匿名发送功能。

../../_images/privatesend-transactions.png

交易选项中由匿名发送产生的交易

以下表格显示了与匿名发送功能相关的交易,它将显示在交易选项中的类型列表当中:

匿名发送交易类型 交易描述
匿名发送功能创建的保证金输入(混币 钱包的资金将被移用作保证金输入,从而完成有担保的支付。这将降低他人追溯资金来源的可能性。
匿名发送功能创建的交易面值(混币 钱包中的资金面额化(步骤1 请参考这里
匿名发送的面额化(混币 交易将被发送到主节点上,以便参与到混币流程当中(步骤3 请参考这里
匿名发送功能的保证金发送(混币 收取混币流程的保证金。为了避免垃圾邮件的攻击,混币流程需要用户支付混币金额的~10%作为保证金。
匿名发送(发送 完成混币后的资金将被发送给其他用户。请注意:与上述的4种交易类型不同的是,这是一个不涉及混币流程的交易。

You can also use the coin control feature to view which addresses hold mixed denominations ready to be used for PrivateSend transactions. Go to the Send tab of your wallet and click Inputs to view the possible input addresses for your transactions. You can see how each address holds given denominations of mixed Dash, and how many rounds of mixing have been completed. This is to ensure that an efficient combination of addresses can be used as inputs in PrivateSend transactions without too much change, since amount in a PrivateSend transaction must be rounded up to completely spend all inputs. The current minimum balance for an input used in a PrivateSend transaction is 0.00100010 DASH.

../../_images/privatesend-addresses.png

货币选择对话框显示了不同地址上以不同面额显示的匿名发送资金的余额

通过匿名发送功能进行支付

You can only use PrivateSend for payments once you have mixed enough Dash to make up the amount you are trying to send. Because the mixing process takes time, it must be done in advance before you create the send transaction. A PrivateSend transaction is effectively the same as any other transaction on the blockchain, but it draws only from input addresses where the denomination has previously been mixed to ensure privacy of funds. Because several input addresses are usually required to make up the amount you are trying to send, a PrivateSend transaction will usually take up more space (in kilobytes) on the blockchain, and therefore will be charged a slightly higher fee.

To send a payment using PrivateSend, go to the PrivateSend tab of the Dash Core wallet. The balance displayed is your PrivateSend balance instead of the total balance as shown on the Send tab. You can then enter the Pay To address, Label, Amount and click PrivateSend. Your payment will be rounded up to completely spend the lowest possible denomination of mixed balance available (currently to the nearest 0.001 DASH). You will be prompted to enter your password and receive a detailed breakdown of the fee structure for PrivateSend before sending.

../../_images/privatesend-send.png

Dash Core ready to send a PrivateSend transaction. Note use of the PrivateSend tab and the amount to be sent is less than the available PrivateSend balance

Inputs

Like all Dash transactions, PrivateSend transactions are composed of a number of inputs and one or more outputs. PrivateSend transactions do not use change addresses, so any remaining Dash will be spent on the transaction fee.

Due to the probabilistic nature of the PrivateSend mixing process, increasing the number of inputs in a transaction may marginally reduce privacy. For this reason, using PrivateSend is not recommended for users requiring a high level of privacy. While it is not possible to link a PrivateSend transaction to a single source address with absolute certainty, using more inputs may make a transaction more vulnerable to different potential linking attacks.

You can reduce the number of inputs in a PrivateSend transaction by defining the transaction amount in such a way that it consumes your available input denominations more efficiently, or by mixing more Dash to ensure enough appropriately denominated inputs are available. Use the Coin Control function in the PrivateSend tab to view and select or deselect mixed UTXOs currently available for use as transaction inputs.

即时支付

介绍

This documentation describes how to use InstantSend to instantly send funds to any other Dash user around the world. Since the release of InstantSend based on Long Living Masternode Quorums (LLMQ-IS) in Dash 0.14, the Dash network itself will attempt to generate an InstantSend lock for almost every transaction processed by the network, according to these rules. Unlike the prior implementation of InstantSend, which required a higher fee, LLMQ-IS locks transactions without any action taken by the user. For this reason, only the recipient needs to monitor the network for the transaction lock in order to be able to receive funds and process transactions with immediate settlement.

Dash InstantSend is supported by many wallets and vendors, including (but not limited to) the following:

  • 达世币核心钱包
  • 达世币安卓钱包
  • 达世币iOS钱包
  • My Dash Wallet
  • Kraken
  • Bitrefill
  • 还有更多…

点击此处阅读有关即时发送功能的更多理论知识和应用流程。

InstantSend Transactions

Since Dash 0.14, all user-facing interface options to create an InstantSend transaction have been removed, because all transactions are effectively InstantSend transactions. As before, the recipient is responsible for monitoring the network for the InstantSend lock and implementing user-facing logic and interfaces to continue with transaction processing after payment has been recieved. See the InstantSend Integration documentation for more information on how to monitor for InstandSend locks.