Links and Information#
User documentation: https://docs.dash.org
Dash Core Documentation: https://docs.dash.org/core
Dash Platform Documentation: https://dashplatform.readme.io
GitHub (Evolution): dashevo
Dash Forum: https://www.dash.org/forum/
BitcoinTalk thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=421615.0
Dash Discord: https://discord.com/invite/PXbUxJB
Dash Dapp Devs Discord: https://chat.dashdevs.org
Dash English Telegram: https://t.me/dash_chat
Dash Brasil Telegram: https://telegram.me/dashbrasil
Dash Dinheiro Digital: https://t.me/DashDinheiroDigital
Dash Russia Telegram: https://telegram.me/Dash_Ru
Dash en Español Telegram: https://t.me/dashpayES
Dash Embassy D-A-CH auf Deutsch Telegram: https://t.me/dashembassydach
Dash France Telegram: https://t.me/DashFrance
Dash Indonesia Telegram: https://t.me/dashindonesia
Dash Iran Telegram: https://t.me/IranianDash
Dash Italy Telegram: https://t.me/dash_chat_italia
Dash LatAm Telegram: https://t.me/DashAmericaLatina
Dash Philippines Telegram: https://t.me/dashphp
Dash Thailand Telegram: https://t.me/dashthailand
Dash Turkey Telegram: https://t.me/dashturkey
Dash Telegram News Bot: https://telegram.me/dashnews
QQ 达世币官方群 DASH.China: 419967021
Freenode IRC: #dashpay
English (Official): https://www.facebook.com/DashPay
Dash News En Español: https://www.facebook.com/DashNewsEspanol
Dash Thailand: https://www.facebook.com/DashDigitalCashTh/
Dash Official Account: https://twitter.com/dashpay
Samuel Westrich, CTO of Dash Core Group: https://twitter.com/SamWestrich/
Joël Valenzuela, Chief Editor, Dash Force News: https://twitter.com/TheDesertLynx
とみ三（Samurai33）, Dash Japan: https://twitter.com/samurai3311
Digital Cash Network: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCduLugW5-tkzxIde8Iz72mw
Cash Alternative TV: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCeFCPtS8sViGO_NpKnS2rpg
Dash News: https://dashnews.org
Dash News En Español (YouTube): https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCG6Cuh8Q2eUt4NlZu4K-u8g
Dash News Korea: https://dashnewskorea.com
巴比特 (8BTC): https://www.8btc.com/p/dash
Dash News China (Wechat): dashnews (or scan QR below)
Evan Duffield’s blog: https://medium.com/@eduffield222
Bitcoin.com forum: https://forum.bitcoin.com/dash-f67
Crypto-city.com page: https://www.crypto-city.com/index.php/dash-dash-coin
Bitco.in forum: https://bitco.in/forum/threads/dash-digitalcash.891
Block explorers, statistics and visualizations#
Price monitoring and research#
Dash Community project#
Dash (Mirror of Main Page): http://dashorg64cjvj4s3.onion
The Hidden Wiki: http://zqktlwi4fecvo6ri.onion/wiki/Dash_-_DigitalCash
Dash Wallet: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=hashengineering.darkcoin.wallet
Bitcoin Ticker Widget: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=st.brothas.mtgoxwidget
- 51% Attack#
A condition in which more than half the computing power on a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single miner or group of miners. That amount of power theoretically makes them the authority on the network. This means that every client on the network believes the attacker’s hashed transaction block.
A Dash address is used to Send/Receive a Payment on the Dash network. It contains a string of alphanumeric characters, but can also be represented as a scannable QR code. A Dash address is also the public key in the pair of keys used by Dash holders to digitally sign transactions (see Public key).
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks.
Since Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency and has the largest market capitalization, it is considered as the reference. An altcoin, or alternative coin, is any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin.
Anti-Money Laundering techniques are used to stop people from making illegally obtained funds appear as though they have been earned legally. AML mechanisms can be legal or technical in nature. Regulators frequently apply AML techniques to Dash exchanges.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software and applications.
An API expresses a software component in terms of its operations, inputs, outputs, and underlying types, defining functionalities that are independent of their respective implementations, which allows definitions and implementations to vary without compromising the interface. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer.
An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or for high-efficiency Dash mining is an ASIC.
- ATM / BTM#
A Dash ATM is a physical machine that allows a customer to buy Dash with cash. There are many manufacturers, some of which enable users to sell Dash for cash. They are also sometimes called ‘BTMs’ or ‘Dash AVMS.’ Dash is supported on several ATMs.
Backlog generally refers to an accumulation over time of work waiting to be done or orders to be fulfilled.
The process of making copies of a computer file to ensure its integrity in case of loss, theft, or damage. Dash allows users to make backup copies of their digital wallets. This protects against losing one’s money in the event of a computer crashing or losing one’s mobile device. This would be the equivalent of being able to backup the cash in your wallet, so that if you lost it, you could restore the cash from a backup.
- Bitcoin 2.0#
This is a term explaining the next new level of Bitcoin projects which started as a fork of Bitcoin but extended their code into the next level of Blockchain Projects (Smart Contracts, Decentralised Voting,….)
A blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of data records hardened against tampering and revision. It consists of data structure blocks — which exclusively hold data in initial blockchain implementations, and both data and programs in some of the more recent implementations — with each block holding batches of individual transactions and the results of any blockchain executables. Each block contains a timestamp and information linking it to a previous block.
Transactions on the Blockchain are collected in “blocks” which record and confirm when and in what sequence transactions enter and are logged in the block chain. Blocks are created by users known as “miners” who use specialized software or equipment designed specifically to create blocks.
Defined in DIP8, ChainLocks are a method of using an LLMQ to threshold sign a block immediately after it is propogated by the miner in order to enforce the first-seen rule. This is a powerful method of mitigating 51% mining attacks, which are associated with double spending.
- Cloud Wallet#
Third parties that will store your Dash on their servers for you, so that you can access your funds from any device connected to the internet. If their website is hacked or if their servers are damaged, you run the risk of losing your Dash. Any online wallets should be secured with strong passphrases and 2FA. You cannot make backup copies of your online wallet, because you do not have access to the private keys. We do not recommend that you store large quantities of funds in online wallets.
- Coinbase transaction#
The first transaction in a block. Always created by a miner, it includes a single input which constitutes the block reward. This is split between the miner and a deterministically chosen masternode.
- Cold Storage#
A method of generating and storing private keys completely offline. One could use a desktop or laptop computer disconnected from the internet, a dedicated hardware wallet, a USB stick, or a paper wallet.
- Confirm(ed) Transaction#
When a Dash transaction is made, a miner must verify that the transaction is valid. When the inputs and outputs are verified, the transaction is included in a block in the blockchain. The transaction can then be considered complete and irreversible. The confirmation number increases as more blocks are added to the blockchain.
- Confirmation Number#
The number of confirmations for a specific Dash transaction. Zero confirmations means that the transaction is unconfirmed. One confirmation means that the transaction is included in the latest block in the blockchain. Two confirmations means the transaction is included in two blocks, three confirmations for three blocks, and so on. The probability of a transaction being reversed (double spent) diminishes exponentially with every block and subsequent confirmation. Six confirmations is usually considered “safe” and irreversible.
- Confirmed Transactions#
Transactions that are processed by miners and considered irreversible, usually after six confirmations. In the case of InstantSend, funds can be considered irreversible after a few seconds, but must still be written to the blockchain (and thus “confirmed”).
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term “CPU” refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency or crypto-currency) is a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of new units.
Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, “hidden, secret”; and γράφειν graphein, “writing,” or -λογία -logia, “study,” respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non- repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.
The development of Dash and the Dash ecosystem is self-funded by the DAO or Decentralized Autonomous Organization. Each time a block is discovered, 90% of the block reward is split between the miner and a masternodes per the distribution found here. 10% is withheld by the network and used to fund projects that are approved by the masternode network. For a fee, anybody can submit a proposal to the network, and will be paid directly by the blockchain if approved by the masternodes. The Budget System is sometimes called the Treasury System; the two terms are interchangeable.
Decentralized Application Protocol. This term describes an application running on top of the Dash DAPI platform.
- DAP Client#
An HTTP Client that connects to DAPI and enables Dash blockchain users to read and write data to their DAP Space.
- DAP Schema#
A Dash Schema document extending the Dash System Schema to define consensus data and rules within a DAP contract.
- DAP Space#
The part of a DAP State that is owned by a specific blockchain user. Data in a DAP Space can only be changed by the owner.
- DAP State#
The total set of data stored in a DAP. This data consists of user DAP Spaces.
Decentralized Application Programming Interface. See above for a definition of API. DAPI will perform the same functions as an API, but with quorums of masternodes acting as the endpoints for API communication.
- Dark Gravity Wave#
In concept, Dark Gravity Wave (DGW) is similar to Kimoto Gravity Well, adjusting the difficulty levels every block (instead of every 2016 blocks like Bitcoin) by using statistical data of the last blocks found. In this way block issuing times can remain consistent despite fluctuations in hashpower. However it doesn’t suffer from the time-warp exploit.
Dash was initially launched as XCoin and then rebranded to Darkcoin and finally Dash.
Originally launched as Xcoin and later renamed to Darkcoin, the currency was later renamed “Dash” to avoid association with the darknet markets. Dash is a portmanteau of “Digital Cash.” Dash is an open source peer-to- peer cryptocurrency that solves many of Bitcoin’s problems. Dash’s features include InstantSend, CoinJoin, a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO), a 2nd tier network (referred to as the masternode network). See the Features page for a full list of Dash’s features.
Dash network data storage backend service used by masternodes for off-chain data relating to Evolution. DashDrive implements IPFS, a type of distributed file storage system.
- Dash Client#
Dash clients are software programs used to interface with the Dash network. They store the private keys needed to conduct Dash transactions as well as a copy of the entire blockchain. A Dash client connects to the Dash network and becomes a node in the network. A node shares and propagates new transactions with the rest of the network, creating a robust decentralized infrastructure.
- Dash Core Wallet#
The Dash Core Wallet (known also as the QT wallet) is the “official” Dash wallet that is compiled by the Dash Core Team and allows both InstantSend and CoinJoin. The DashCore wallet will download the entire blockchain and serve it over the internet to any peers who request it.
- Dash Evolution#
This is a 3 tier network Dash developers are presently building. It will make Dash as easy to use as PayPal, while still remaining decentralized. See the Evolution page for more information.
- Dash Schema#
A JSON-based language specification for defining and validating consensus data in Evolution.
A distributed denial of service attack uses large numbers of computers under an attacker’s control to drain the resources of a central target. They often send small amounts of network traffic across the Internet to tie up computing and bandwidth resources at the target, which prevents it from providing services to legitimate users. Dash exchanges have sometimes been hit with DDoS attacks.
Decentralized computing is the allocation of resources, both hardware and software, to each individual workstation or office location. In contrast, centralized computing exists when the majority of functions are carried out or obtained from a remote centralized location. Decentralized computing is a trend in modern-day business environments. This is the opposite of centralized computing, which was prevalent during the early days of computers. A decentralized computer system has many benefits over a conventional centralized network. Desktop computers have advanced so rapidly that their potential performance far exceeds the requirements of most business applications. This results in most desktop computers remaining nearly idle most of the time. A decentralized system can use the potential of these systems to maximize efficiency. However, it is debatable whether these networks increase overall effectiveness.
- Desktop Wallet#
A wallet is a piece of software that stores your Dash. There are many different wallet options, but it is imperative to choose a secure one. We recommend any of the following: Dash Core Wallet / Dash Electrum Wallet / Hardware Wallets
This number determines how difficult it is to hash a new block. It is related to the maximum allowed number in a given numerical portion of a transaction block’s hash. The lower the number, the more difficult it is to produce a hash value that fits it. Difficulty varies based on the amount of computing power used by miners on the Dash network. If large numbers of miners leave a network, the difficulty would decrease. Dash’s increasing popularity and the availability of specialized ASIC miners have caused the difficulty to increase over time.
- Digital Wallet#
See this link for full documentation on wallets.
A digital wallet is similar to a physical wallet except that it is used to hold digital currency. A Dash wallet holds your private keys, which allow you to spend your Dash. You are also able to make backups of your wallet in order to ensure that you never lose access to your Dash. Digital wallets can exist in many different forms and on many devices:
Desktop Wallet (Dash Electrum Wallet, Dash Core Wallet): Wallet programs that you install on a laptop or desktop computer. You are solely responsible for protecting the wallet file and the private keys it contains. Make backup copies of your wallet files to ensure that you don’t lose access to your funds.
Mobile Wallet (Android, iOS): These wallets can be downloaded through Google Play or Apple (iTunes) App Stores. Mobile wallets allow you to use Dash on-the-go by scanning a QR code to send payment. Make backup copies of your mobile wallet files to ensure that you don’t lose access to your funds. Due to security issues with mobile phones, it is advised that you don’t store large amounts of funds on these wallets.
Online/Cloud/Web Wallet (Exodus, MyDashWallet): Third parties that will store your Dash on their servers for you or provide an interface to access your Dash with you providing the keys, so that you can access your Dash from any device connected to the internet. If their website is hacked or if their servers are damaged, you run the risk of losing your Dash. Any online wallets should be secured with strong passphrases and 2FA. You cannot make backup copies of your online wallet, because you do not have access to the private keys. We strongly urge that you NEVER store large amounts of Dash in any online wallet or cryptocurrency exchange.
Hardware Wallets (Trezor, KeepKey, Ledger, Nano): A hardware wallet is a specialized, tamper-proof, hardware device that stores your private keys. This device is able to sign transactions with your private key without being connected to the internet. However, you must have an internet connection to send the transaction to the Dash network. This allows your private keys to be accessed easily while still keeping them securely protected. This is widely regarded to be the safest form of storage for your Dash.
Offline/Cold Storage (Paper wallet): A special wallet that is created offline and is never exposed to the internet. Accomplished by using software to generate a public and private key offline and then recording the generated keys. They keys can be printed out on paper or even laser-etched in metal. Copies can be made and stored in a personal safe or bank deposit box. This is an extremely secure way to store Dash. There is no risk of using software wallet files, which can become corrupt, or web wallets, which can be hacked. NOTE: USB sticks are not safe for long-term (multi-year) storage because they degrade over time.
Defined in DIP6, Distributed Key Generation (DKG) is a method of generating a BLS key pair for use in an LLMQ to perform threshold signing on network messages. It is based on BLS M-of-N Threshold Scheme and Distributed Key Generation, which is an implementation of Shamir’s Secret Sharing.
- Digital Signature#
A digital signature is a mathematical mechanism that allows someone to prove their identity or ownership of a digital asset. When your digital wallet signs a transaction with the appropriate private key, the whole network can see that the signature matches the address of the Dash being spent, without the need to reveal the private key to the network. You can also digitally sign messages using your private key, to prove for instance that you are the owner of a certain Dash address.
- Electrum Wallet#
Dash Electrum Wallet is a lightweight wallet that does not require you to download or sync the entire blockchain, making the wallet lighter and faster. It includes support for advanced InstantSend, CoinJoin and masternode features.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encrypted messages which are intercepted by a third-party are indecipherable gibberish without the private key. In an encryption scheme, the plaintext message is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, generating ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted by the intended recipient. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. Increases in computing power have “broken” many past encryption algorithms, but a well-designed modern system such as AES-256 is considered essentially “uncrackable.”
- Escrow Services#
An escrow is:
a contractual arrangement in which a third party receives and disburses money or documents for the primary transacting parties, with the disbursement dependent on conditions agreed to by the transacting parties; or
an account established by a broker for holding funds on behalf of the broker’s principal or some other person until the consummation or termination of a transaction; or
a trust account held in the borrower’s name to pay obligations such as property taxes and insurance premiums.
A trusted escrow service is often used when purchasing cryptocurrency or other goods/services over the internet. Both the buyer and seller will choose a trusted third-party, the seller will send the item (or currency) to the escrow agent, and the buyer will send the purchasing funds to the escrow agent as well. Once the escrow agent is satisfied that both parties have satisfied the terms of the agreement, he/she will forward the funds and the product (or currency) being purchased to the appropriate party.
- Evan Duffield#
Founder and first Lead Developer of Dash. Inventor of X11, InstantSend and PrivateSend. Before creating Dash, Evan was a financial advisor and holds a Series 65 license.
The current price of one Dash compared to the price of other currencies, like the US dollar, Yen, Euro, or Bitcoin. Because most trading volume takes place on the BTC/DASH markets, price is often quoted in fractions of a bitcoin. For instance, the price of one Dash at the end of March 2017 was 0.08 (bitcoins per Dash). An excellent site for following the exchange rate of Dash is CoinMarketCap. Businesses wishing to reduce the risk of holding a volatile digital currency can avoid that risk altogether by having a payment processor do an instant exchange at the time of each transaction.
Faucets are a reward system, in the form of a website or app, that dispenses rewards in the form of a microdash or Duff, which is a hundredth of a millionth Dash, for visitors to claim in exchange for completing a captcha or task as described by the website.
- Fiat Gateway#
Fiat money has been defined variously as:
Any money declared by a government to be legal tender.
State-issued money which is neither convertible by law to any other thing, nor fixed in value in terms of any objective standard.
Intrinsically valueless money used as money because of government decree.
Examples include the US dollar, the Euro, the Yen, and so forth.
Financial technology, also known as FinTech, is an economic industry composed of companies that use technology to make financial services more efficient. Financial technology companies are generally startups trying to make financial processes more efficient or eliminate middle- men. Recently many fintech companies have begun utilizing blockchain technology, which is the same technology that underpins Dash and Bitcoin.
When the blockchain diverges or splits, with some clients recognizing one version of the blockchain as valid, and other clients believing that a different version of the blockchain is valid. Most forks resolve themselves without causing any problems, because the longest blockchain is always considered to be valid. In time, one version of the blockchain will usually “win” and become universally recognized as valid. Forks can, however, be extremely dangerous and should be avoided if possible.
Forking is most likely to occur during software updates to the network. Dash uses a Multi-Phased Fork (“Spork”) system for greater flexibility and safety.
- Full Nodes#
Any Dash client that is serving a full version of the blockchain to peers. This can be a user running a Dash Core wallet on his/her desktop, or it could be a masternode. Full nodes promote decentralization by allowing any user to double check the validity of the blockchain.
Every unit of the currency is worth the same as any other unit.
- Genesis Block#
The very first block in the block chain.
A graphics processing unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processing unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing, and their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general- purpose CPUs for algorithms where the processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be embedded on the motherboard or — in certain CPUs — on the CPU die. Certain cryptocurrencies use mining algorithms which are most efficiently run on GPUs.
- Hardware Wallet#
Hardware wallets are among the safest type of wallet for storing your Dash. Your private key is protected inside a piece of hardware, and is never exposed to the internet. You are still able to sign transactions as normal, making it both safe and convenient.
A mathematical process that takes a variable amount of data and produces a shorter, fixed-length output. A hashing function has two important characteristics. First, it is mathematically difficult to work out what the original input was by looking at the output. Second, changing even the tiniest part of the input will produce an entirely different output.
The number of hashes that can be performed by a Dash miner in a given period of time (usually a second).
Blockchain information server used to power block explorers and respond to transaction queries.
InstantSend technology uses the masternode network to “lock” transaction inputs, preventing Dash from being double-spent. Unlike Bitcoin, where it takes an hour or longer for transactions to fully confirm, transactions using InstantSend are “locked” and irreversible after only a few seconds.
The ability to buy and sell an asset easily, with pricing that stays roughly similar between trades. A suitably large community of buyers and sellers is important for liquidity. The result of an illiquid market is price volatility, and the inability to easily determine the value of an asset.
Defined in DIP6, A Long- Living Masternode Quorum (LLMQ) is a deterministic subset of the global deterministic masternode list. Such a quorum is formed with the help of a distributed key generation (DKG) protocol and is supposed to be active for a long time (e.g. days). Multiple quorums are kept alive at the same time, allowing load balancing between these quorums. The main task of a LLMQ is to perform threshold signing of consensus related messages.
A masternode is special type of full node that performs services for the network and is paid a portion of the block reward. Masternodes require proof of ownership of 1000 DASH.
Masternodes serve as the second tier of the Dash network, and power InstantSend, CoinJoin, and the Budget System.
Miners process transactions on the Dash network and publish them on the blockchain. As a reward for doing this, miners are paid a percentage of the block reward. The current percentage can be found in this table.
- Mobile Wallet#
These are wallets available on mobile devices (iOS + Android).
Multi-signature addresses provide additional security by requiring multiple people to sign a transaction with their private key before the transaction can be sent. For example, in 2 of 3 multisig, two out of three possible signatories have to sign a transaction for it to be processed. Multi-signature addresses are commonly used by exchanges and other organizations that are in possession of large sums of cryptocurrency, since it makes theft much more difficult.
A node is any device running Dash wallet software. Full nodes are software clients that have downloaded the entire blockchain and serve it to other clients on Dash’s peer-to-peer network.
Over the counter (OTC) trades are trades that occur off exchanges. In an OTC trade, a buyer and seller trade with each other directly, or through an intermediary. OTC trading is useful when a person wants to either buy or sell a large amount of cryptocurrency and is afraid that a large buy or sell order will move the price (called “slippage”).
Peer-to-peer. Decentralized interactions that happen between at least two parties in a highly interconnected network. An alternative system to a ‘hub-and-spoke’ arrangement, in which all participants in a transaction deal with each other through a single mediation point.
- Paper Wallet#
Paper wallets are offline wallets, printed on paper for safety. If properly secured and stored they are considered the safest way to store cryptocurrency.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The domain of privacy partially overlaps security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate use, as well as protection of information. Dash includes CoinJoin, which allows users to maintain financial privacy.
- Private Key#
A private key is a long alphanumeric passcode that allows Dash to be spent. Every Dash wallet contains one or more private keys which are saved in the wallet file. The private keys are mathematically related to all Dash addresses generated for the wallet. Because the private key is the “ticket” that allows someone to spend Dash, it is important that these are kept secure and secret.
PrivateSend obscures the source of funds in order to maintain financial privacy between users. It can be turned on or off at the users’ discretion.
- Proof of Service - PoSe#
Consensus mechanism used in Dash to verify that a masternode has provided uninterrupted service meeting a minimum quality level to the network. Maintaining this service allows a masternode to enter and move up through the global list and eventually into the selection pool to receive payment.
- Proof of Stake - PoS#
Consensus mechanism that relies on ownership of a cryptocurrency to maintain the blockchain. In Proof of Stake systems, each owner of the currency can use their wallet to “stake,” and there’s a small chance that they will be chosen to create the next block and add it to the chain. In this way consensus is maintained across all nodes. Proof of Stake saves electricity and does not require specialized computer hardware. It does however suffer from several pitfalls, including the “nothing at stake” problem. Since no electricity is consumed, in the event of an attack it is actually beneficial for Proof of Stake nodes to “vote” to accept both the legitimate chain and the attacker’s chain.
- Proof of Work - PoW#
Consensus mechanism that keeps all nodes honest by requiring computational power to be expended in order to create new blocks. Miners must use expensive equipment and burn electricity to add blocks to the blockchain. Without a consensus mechanism of some sort, any node could add blocks to the chain and the network’s nodes would never agree on which chain was valid.
- Public Key#
The public key is derived from the private key but is not secret and can be revealed to anybody. When a private key is used to sign messages, the public key is used to verify that the signature is valid.
- Pump and dump#
Inflating the value of a financial asset that has been produced or acquired cheaply, often using aggressive publicity and misleading statements. The publicity causes others to acquire the asset, forcing up its value. When the value is high enough, the perpetrator sells their assets, cashing in and flooding the market, which causes the value to crash. This is particularly common in markets with low liquidity, such as some altcoins.
Group of masternodes signing or voting on some action, with the formation of the group determined by some determiniation algorithm.
- QR Code#
A two-dimensional graphical block containing a monochromatic pattern representing a sequence of data. QR codes are designed to be scanned by cameras, including those found in mobile phones, and are frequently used to encode Dash addresses.
- Satoshi Nakamoto#
Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the person or people who designed Bitcoin and created its original reference implementation.
Software Development Kit. A set of tools, code and documentation used by developers to create apps targeting a specific hardware or software platform.
An indication, flag, or signal of support for a feature or fork. The term signaling is most often used in the context of miners delivering this indication of support or agreement. The message is generally delivered through their adoption of updated software in support of a particular protocol and/or by setting a specific version bit within discovered blocks.
- State View#
The current state of all data objects once all changes from state transitions have been applied. Used in Evolution to determine what should be displayed in a given social wallet, for example.
The Dash development team created a mechanism known as a “spork” by which updated code is released to the network, but not immediately made active (or “enforced”). Communication is sent out to users informing them of the change and the need for them to update their clients. Those who update their clients run the new code, but in the event of errors occurring with that new code, the client’s blocks are not rejected by the network and unintended forks are avoided. Data about the error can then be collected and forwarded to the development team. Once the development team is satisfied with the new code’s stability in the mainnet environment – and once acceptable network consensus is attained – enforcement of the updated code can be activated remotely. Should problems arise, the code can be deactivated in the same manner, without the need for a network-wide rollback or client update.
- Tainted Coins#
Taint is a measure of correlation between two (wallet) addresses. It is only important if the user is trying to remain anonymous.
Test Dash, used on testnet.
Testnet is a network only for testing (parallel to the mainnet), test wallets, test coins, test masternodes, test miners, and test users all simulate their mainnet counterparts in a safe environment where errors or forks are not harmful.
An anonymous routing protocol used by people wanting to hide their identity online.
Some movement of data on the distributed blockchain ledger. Transactions may be divided into classical and special transactions. Similar to Bitcoin, classical transactions move balances between addresses on the blockchain. Special transactions contain an extra payload in the format defined by DIP2, and can be used to manage blockchain users, for example.
- Transaction Block#
A collection of transactions on the Dash network, gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
- Transaction Fee#
A small fee imposed on some transactions sent across the Dash network. The transaction fee is awarded to the miner that successfully hashes the block containing the relevant transaction.
- Unconfirmed Transactions#
Transactions that are not yet processed by miners or held via InstantSend are “unconfirmed on the blockchain.” Unconfirmed transactions can be reversed and should not be considered as “final.”
- Vanity Address#
A Dash address with a desirable pattern, such as a name.
- Virgin Dash#
Dash received as a reward for mining a block or running a masternode. These have not yet been spent anywhere and are “virgin.”
The measurement of price movements over time for a traded financial asset (including Dash).
A method of storing Dash for later use. A wallet holds the private keys associated with Dash addresses. The blockchain is the record of the Dash balances (and transactions) associated with those addresses.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body’s philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.
X11 is a hashing algorithm created by Dash Core developer Evan Duffield.
- Zero Confirmations#
This is a transaction without any confirmations from the blockchain. It is technically reversible (unless InstantSend was used).
A transaction (tx) consists of one or more inputs and one or more outputs. The vin is the list of inputs to the transaction, and vout is the list of outputs. Masternodes require a 1000 DASH vin (exactly that amount) in order to work.