Entendiendo los masternodes#
Los masternodes, que alguna vez fueron exclusivos de la red Dash, ahora se están haciendo populares a medida que la tecnología se bifurca en otras cadenas de bloques. Esta sección de la documentación describe los principios y mecanismos de los masternodes y los servicios que proporcionan específicamente a la red Dash.
Simply put, a masternode is a server with a full copy of the Dash blockchain, which guarantees a certain minimum level of performance and functionality to perform certain tasks related to block validation, as well as InstantSend and CoinJoin, as the and instant transaction and privacy features in Dash are called. The masternodes are paid for this service, using a concept known as Proof of Service. This is in addition to the Proof of Work done by miners to secure the blockchain. Masternodes are also allowed to vote on governance and funding proposals, with each masternode receiving one vote (yes/no/abstain) on each proposal submitted to the system.
Anyone can run a masternode. The objective is to have enough decentralization to ensure that no single person controls a significant fraction of the masternodes. However, to avoid bloating the network with unnecessary masternodes or encouraging reckless operators, there is one condition that needs to be fulfilled: proof of ownership of DASH collateral. The coins don’t need to be in the masternode, but they need to be kept in a certain way that is transparent to the entire network. If the owner moves or spends those coins, the masternode stops working and payment ceases.
Masternodes are paid by the network for the InstantSend, CoinJoin and governance services they provide. 20% of the block subsidy goes to the budget with the remaining 80% split between miners and masternodes per this block reward reallocation table. Then, every 16,616 blocks (approximately 30.29 days), a superblock is created that contains the entire 20% payout to the budget proposal winners. Masternodes are selected for payment in each block (approximately every 2.6 minutes) from a deterministic masternode list, and moved to the back of the list after payment. As more masternodes are created, the duration between payments increases. If the collateral behind a masternode is spent, or if a masternode stops providing services to the network for more than one hour, it is removed from the list until normal service resumes. In this way, masternodes are given incentive to provide efficient and reliable services to the network.
Tener tantos servidores con una copia completa de la cadena de bloques y trabajando para la moneda puede ser extremadamente útil. Gracias al sistema de recompensas, no existe el riesgo de no tener suficientes masternodes, y los desarrolladores pueden confiar en que implementarán rápidamente cualquier nueva función descentralizada que se desee implementar. Aquí es donde radica la verdadera fortaleza de Dash - un sistema incentivado de miles de servidores distribuidos que funcionan 24x7 significa que Dash puede escalar más eficientemente y desplegar servicios más rápidamente que una cadena de bloques operada completamente por voluntarios no remunerados. Cuantos más masternodes, mejor y más segura es la red Dash.
As of September 2023, the Dash network has almost 3500 masternodes located in 19 countries and hosted on over 140 ISPs. The block reward is approximately 2.310 Dash, so the selected masternode receives 1.344 Dash per payment or approximately 6 Dash per month. The block reward decreases by 7.14% approximately once per year, so the annual earnings for a masternode owner is approximately 7% of the collateral, and will decrease over time as calculated here. See this tool to calculate real-time payment rates, and this site for various real-time statistics on the masternode network.
Evolution Masternodes (evonodes)#
Evolution Masternodes (evonodes) are a subset of masternodes that have been created to host Dash Platform. An evonode is a lot like a regular masternode with the following differences:
4000 DASH (4X the collateral for normal masternodes)
Lesser than evonode
Higher than normal masternodes
Only Dash Core
Both Dash Core and Platform
1 node gets 1 vote
Has 4 times the voting power of a normal masternode
A list of available documentation appears below:
The ProRegTx references the transaction id (txid) and index holding the collateral. The IP address and port of the masternode are also defined in this transaction.
The ProRegTx contains 2 Dash addresses (also called public keys) and one BLS public key, which represent 3 different roles in the masternode and define update and voting rights. The keys are:
ownerKeyAddr: This is a Dash address (public key) controlled by the masternode owner. It is different from the address used for the collateral. Because the owner uses the private key associated with this address to issue ProUpRegTx transactions, it must be unique for each masternode.
operatorPubKey: This is the BLS public key of the masternode operator. Only the operator is allowed to issue ProUpServTx transactions. Because the operator key is used during live masternode operation to sign masternode-related P2P messages, quorum-related messages and governance trigger votes, the BLS key must be unique for each masternode.
votingKeyAddr: This is a Dash address (public key) used for proposal voting. Votes signed with the corresponding private key are valid while the masternode is in the registered set.
Masternode owners should specify an address different from the collateral to receive payments in the ProRegTx. The owner may optionally specify a non-zero percentage as payment to a separate masternode operator, if applicable.
The masternode configuration can later be updated using ProUpServTx, ProUpRegTx and ProUpRevTx transactions. See Updating Masternode Information in DIP003 and Actualizando información de Masternode in this documentation for more details.
The process of setting up or upgrading a masternode is as follows:
Set up your server and operating system
Install the Dash software and synchronize the blockchain
Generate a BLS key pair and enter the private key on the masternode
Prepara una transacción de ProRegTx
Firma la transacción ProRegTx
Submit the signed ProRegTx transaction
Step 1 can be omitted if you have an existing server. Steps 2 and 3 require direct access to the masternode. Steps 3 and 4 require access to a Dash Wallet (or DMT). Step 5 requires access to the wallet actually holding the collateral. Step 6 requires a Dash balance to pay the transaction fee.
Masternodes vs. minería#
Dash, como Bitcoin y la mayoría de las otras criptomonedas, se basa en un libro contable descentralizado de todas las transacciones, conocido como cadena de bloques. Esta cadena de bloques está asegurada a través de un mecanismo de consenso; en el caso de Dash y Bitcoin, el mecanismo de consenso es Prueba de trabajo (PoW). Mineros intentan resolver problemas difíciles con computadoras especializadas, y cuando resuelven el problema, reciben el derecho de agregar un nuevo bloque a la cadena de bloques. Si todas las demás personas que ejecutan el software están de acuerdo en que el problema se resolvió correctamente, el bloque se agrega a la cadena de bloques y se recompensa al minero.
Dash works a little differently from Bitcoin, however, because it has a two-tier network. The second tier is powered by masternodes (Full Nodes), which enable financial privacy (CoinJoin), instant transactions (InstantSend), and the decentralized governance and budget system. Because this second tier is so important, masternodes are also rewarded when miners discover new blocks. The breakdown is as follows: 80% of the block subsidy is split between the miner and a masternode per the distribution found here, while 20% is reserved for the budget system (created by superblocks every month).
El sistema de masternodes se conoce como Prueba de Servicio (PoSe), ya que los masternodes proporcionan servicios cruciales a la red. De hecho, toda la red es supervisada por los masternodes, que tienen el poder de rechazar bloques formados incorrectamente por los mineros. Si un minero intenta tomar toda la recompensa del bloque por sí mismo o intenta ejecutar una versión anterior del software Dash, la red de masternodes deshabilitaría ese bloque, y no se agregaría a la cadena de bloques.
In short, miners power the first tier, which is the basic sending and receiving of funds and prevention of doublespending. Masternodes power the second tier, which provide the added features that make Dash different from other cryptocurrencies. Masternodes do not mine, and mining computers cannot serve as masternodes. Additionally, each masternode is “secured” by DASH collateral. Those DASH remain under the sole control of their owner at all times, and can still be freely spent. The funds are not locked in any way. However, if the funds are moved or spent, the associated masternode will go offline and stop receiving rewards.
Lógica de pagos#
Since Dash version 0.13.0, masternode payments are entirely deterministic and based on a simple list sort algorithm. Dash version 0.13.0 implemented DIP003 which defines two sets of masternodes.
The full set, which contains all registered masternodes that have not spent their collateral funding transactions.
The valid set, a subset of the full set which contains all masternodes which are not marked as Proof of Service (PoSe) banned.
Each masternode in the set of valid masternodes, identified by its registration transaction ID, is associated with the block at which it was last paid. If it has never received payment or was banned for failing to meet the PoSe requirements, then the block at which it was first registered or at which service was restored is used instead. The list is sorted in ascending order by this block height and ProRegTx hash (as a tie breaker in case two masternodes were registered in the same block), and the first entry is selected for payment.
Evonode Payment Logic#
Because the reward distribution percentages are fixed, the number of evonodes is expected to stabilize around a fixed number based on the total number of masternodes (considering the current number of ~3850 Masternodes, ~450 evonodes are expected). This is because if there are more than that fixed number of evonodes, running a regular MN will be more profitable than running an evonode, and hosts will convert their evonodes into MNs.
Evonodes will receive 100% of the fees generated from Platform and 37.5% of the masternode portion of Core block rewards. Regular MNs will receive the remaining 62.5% of the masternode portion of Core block rewards and 0% of Platform fees.
Proof of Service#
Proof of Service (PoSe) is a scoring system used to determine if a masternode is providing network services in good faith. A number of metrics are involved in the calculation, so it is not possible to game the system by causing masternodes to be PoSe banned for failing to respond to ping requests by e.g. a DDoS attack just prior to payment. Each failure to provide service results in an increase in the PoSe score relative to the maximum score, which is equal to the number of registered masternodes. If the score reaches the number of registered masternodes, a PoSe ban is enacted and the masternode must be repaired to ensure it provides reliable service and registered in the list again using a ProUpServTx. The current scoring rules as of Dash 0.14 are:
Failure to participate in DKG= 66% punishment
Each subsequent block reduces PoSe score by 1
Selección de quórum#
In past versions of Dash, quorums of 10 masternodes were formed spontaneously to lock InstantSend transactions. As of Dash 0.14, quorums are deterministically formed, contain more masternodes and remain alive for a longer period of time. While they remain responsible for InstantSend transactions, the locking mechanism has changed to automatically attempt locks on most network transactions according to the requirements described here. Masternodes are now also responsible for more network consensus functions, such as ChainLocks. Masternode quorums are formed through a process of distributed key generation. Failure to participate in DKG will eventually result in a PoSe ban as described above.
Requerimientos para los masternodes#
DASH collateral: Hosting a master node requires a large amount of DASH collateral. Arguably the hardest part. Dash can be obtained from exchanges such as Poloniex, Bittrex, Kraken and LiveCoin. Shapeshift’s service is also an excellent way.
A server or VPS running Linux: Most recent guides use Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. We recommend VPS services such as Vultr and DigitalOcean, although any decent provider will do. Generally an instance with low to average specifications will do, although performance requirements will increase according to this roadmap.
Una dirección IP dedicada: por lo general, vienen con el VPS/servidor.
In addition to the DASH held in collateral, masternodes also have minimum hardware requirements. For Dash versions 20.0 and higher, these requirements are as follows:
2x 2 GHz
3x 2 GHz
4 GB + 2 GB swap
8 GB + 4 GB swap
Masternode bandwidth use ranges between 600-900 GB per month and will grow as the network does.
The exact hardware requirements for Dash Evolution masternodes have yet to be determined, although some pointers can be taken from the roadmap and this blog post. It should be possible to run Dash masternodes on normal VPS servers until the block size reaches approximately 20 MB, after which custom hardware such as GPUs and eventually ASICs may be required.